References and Additional Resources

Section 1 – Why Irrigate Cotton

Grismer, M.E. 2002. Regional cotton lint yield, ETc and water value in Arizona and California. Agric. Water Manage. 54:227–242.

Zwart, S.J. and W.G.M. Bastiaanssen. 2004. Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton, and maize. Agricultural Water Management 69:115-133.

Section 2 – Why schedule Irrigation

Grimes, D.W., and K.M. El-Zik. 1990. Cotton. p. 741–748. In B.A. Stewart and D.R. Nielsen (ed.) Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. Agron. Monogr. 30. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.

Section 3 – Initiating and Terminating Irrigation for the Season

Vories, E. D., R. Hogan, P. L. Tacker, R. E. Glover, S. W. Lancaster. 2007. Estimating the impact of delaying irrigation for midsouth cotton on clay soil. Transactions of the ASABE 50(3): 929−937.

Vories, E.D., J. K. Greene, T. G. Teague, J. H. Stewart, B. J. Phipps, H. C. Pringle, E. L. Clawson, R. J. Hogan, P. F. O'Leary, T. W. Griffin. 2011. Determining the optimum timing for the final furrow irrigation on mid-south cotton. Transactions of the ASABE 27(5): 737-745.

Section 4 – Cotton Water Requirements

Allen, R.G., I.A. Walter, R. Elliot, T. Howell, D. Itenfisu and M. Jensen, 2005: The ASCE standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. American Society of Civil Engineers. Reston, Virginia

Farahani, H.J., T.Y. Oweis, and G. Izzi. 2008. Crop coefficient for drip-irrigated cotton in a Mediterranean environment. Irrig. Sci. 26:375-383.

Fisher, D.K. 2004. Simple and inexpensive lysimeters for monitoring reference- and crop-ET. Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Irrigation Conference, November 14-16, Tampa, Florida.

Hunsaker, D.J., E. M. Barnes, T. R. Clarke, G. J. Fitzgerald, P. J. Pinter Jr. 2005. Cotton Irrigation Scheduling Using Remotely Sensed and FAO-56 Basal Crop Coefficients. Transactions of the ASAE, Vol. 48(4): 1395_1407.

Howell, T.A., S.R. Evett, J.A. Tolk, and A.D. Schneider. 2004. Evapotranspiration of full-, defi cit-irrigated, and dryland cotton on the northern Texas high Plains. J. Irrig. Drain. Eng. 130:277- 285.

Section 5 – Water-Sensitivity of Cotton Growth Stages

Hake, K.D. and G.W. Grimes. 2010. Crop water management to optimize growth and yield. P. 255-264. In James McD. Stewart, Derrick Oosterhuis, James J. Heithold, and Jack R. Mauney (eds) Physiology of Cotton. Springer-Verlag GmbH. Heidelberg, Germany.

Krieg, D.R. 2000. Cotton water relations. P. 7-15. In Derrick Oosterhuis (ed) Special Report 198 Proceedings of the 2000 Cotton Research Meeting and Summaries of Cotton Research in Progress. University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, Arkansas. (Available online

Section 6 – Sensor-Based Scheduling

Leib, B. G., J. D. Jabro, and G. R. Matthews. 2003. Field evaluation and performance comparison of soil moisture sensors. Soil Science 168(6):396-408.

Section 7 – Irrigation Scheduling Tools

There are several weather-based scheduling programs now available including online data in a majority of cotton producing states, traveling from west to east:

• California: California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS)

• Arizona: Arizona Irrigation Scheduling System

• West Texas: Texas High Plains ET Network

• South Texas: Crop Weather Program

• Oklahoma: Mesonet

• Arkansas: Irrigation Scheduling Program

• Missouri: Woodruff charts and Show Me Irrigator

• Alabama: MoisMIS2020

• Mississippi: Mississippi Irrigation Scheduling Tool

• Tennessee: Management Of Irrigation Systems in Tennessee

• Georgia: – Irrigator Pro

Section 8 – Management Considerations for Irrigated Cotton

Hake, K., D. Krieg, J. Landivar, and D. Oosterhuis. 1992. Plant water relations. Cotton Physiology Today 3(7). (Available at:

Wrona, A.F., and D.R. Krieg. 2000. Factors affecting water use. Cotton Physiology Today 11(1). National Cotton Council. (Available at:

Section 9 – Irrigation Systems Overview

Drip Irrigation

Boman, B. S. Smith and B. Tullos. 2002. Control and Automation in Citrus Microirrigation Systems. Circular 1413, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.

Camp, C.R., W.M. Thomas, and C.C. Green. 1993. Microirrigation scheduling and tube placement for cotton in the southeastern coastal plain. Trans. ASAE 36(4):1073-1078.

Camp, C.R., E.J. Sadler, and W.J. Busscher. 1989. Subsurface and alternate-middle microirrigation for the southeastern coastal plain. Trans. ASAE 31(2):451-456.

Khalilian, A., M. J. Sullivan, W. B. Smith. 2000. Optimum lateral depth for subsurface drip irrigation in coastal plain soils. Proceedings of the 4th Decennial Irrigation Symposium. ASAE.

Pitts, D.J., D.Z. Haman and A.G. Smajstrla. 1990. Causes and Prevention of Emitter Plugging in Microirrigation Systems. Bulletin 258, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida

Surface Irrigation

Natural Resources Conservation Service [NRCS]. 2008. NRCS National Engineering Handbook – Part 623: Irrigation. Chapter – Surface Irrigation. Accessed: 03 April 2012.

Sansone, C., T. Isakeit, R. Lemon, and B. Warrick. 2012. Texas Cotton Production – Emphasizing Integrated Pest Management. Texas AgriLife Extension Service. tcpemphipm.html Accessed: 03 April 2012.

Smathers, R.L., B. A. King, and P.E. Patterson. 1995. Economics of Surface Irrigation Systems. University of Idaho Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. 779.

University of Arkansas. 2006. Irrigation Methods – Furrow Irrigation Method. University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture. Accessed: 03 April 2012.

Center Pivots

Hoffman, G.J., R.G. Evans, M.E. Jensen, D.L. Martin, and R.L. Elliott. 2007. Design and operation of farm irrigation systems. Second edition. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

Lascano, R.J. and R.E. Sojka. 2007. Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. Agronomy Monograph 30, Second Edition. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Keller, J. and R.D. Bliesner. 1990. Sprinkle and Trickle Irrigation. The Blackburn Press, Caldwell, NJ. Stetson, L.E. and B.Q. Mecham. 2011. Irrigation. Sixth Edition. Irrigation Association, Falls Church, VA.

Irrigation and Water Quality

Ayres, R.S. and D.W. Westcot. 1976. Water Quality for Agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 29. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome

Nakayama F. and D. Bucks. 1991. Water quality in drip/trickle irrigation: a review. Irrigation Science 12:187-192.


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